Posted on Leave a comment

MiMi’s Flower Moves

House Plant

When MiMi’s flower came to us, it was just a pack of seeds, a pot and growing medium. Since then the plant has grown into a thriving seedling. We have moved it from our “nursery” aka the lawn table set to the front porch to adorn the front yard. It has not grown into a full flower yet. But, she is in a new and larger clay pot with fresh soil and a lot of sun to grow. She already is brightening up the place and should grow into a wonderful addition to the front yard.

As we previously stated, MiMi’s flower was somewhat of an experiment as we placed all the seeds into the pot. The packet recommended sowing just a few and saving the rest. So, we got a lot of sprouts and may see some crowding in the days to come. We will be keeping an eye on her. She may need to be divided up in to more pots to give each flower space to grow or she may just go into a bigger pot so all the flowers can grow together as a bouquet. One of the things we did notice with the growing medium and pot within a pot method, which allowed excess water to both drain and be captured (similar to a plant tray) is that MiMi’s flower had a well developed root system and was very moist.

For a few dollars this is a wonderful way to bring color and life to your front porch and home. As you know from the articled “Professor Plant” plants can offer many health benefits beyond just beauty. Having a plant potted is a wonderful way to have a living bouquet that is sustainable and does not die on you within a week. As you also know, MiMi & Mom have since gotten a lavender and chamomile flower. These are two of my favorite flowers because they are not only beautiful they are editable. So, we are looking forward to an update and full pictures to share with everyone. The inspiration is flowing free.

How have you been inspired by these articles? How has someone in the community inspired you? What are your favorite flowers? Have you considered growing them in your yard or in a container? As always you are the best part of what we do. Keep growing.

If these articles have been helpful to you and yours, give a donation to Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook Ezine today.

Posted on Leave a comment

Infectious Disease

Swiss Chard with Disease

In keeping good plant health, one must consider the nutrients the plant receives as well as the predators and disease the plants may experience. In our garden we have to address all of these. With lack of proper nutrition comes disease and with disease comes predators. The health of the plant must also be considered. Has it experienced shock? Was it over watered or under watered? Was it properly drained? Did it receive too much sun or not enough sun?

Many factors can contribute to the overall health of a plant. As we discovered it is not just enough to plant a seed, provide some light and water. Starting with one plant and getting to know the needs and overall challenges that come with that one plant is a good way to begin if you are just starting out. The Organic Journey is a patient one that takes an understanding of the cycle of nature. Just as we may resolve one pest or disease issue, here comes another. The cycle of the nature process may not be over yet and may give rise to another issue or predator.

Recently our Swiss Chard sprout, planted in one of our Soil Blocks, became sick and dropped its leaves. We are not sure what caused it yet. However, the mini garage as we call it, is indeed a garage that we think likes moisture too much. We believe that it was some type of yellow mold. When we removed the plant and went to select the next round of transplants we saw signs of the yellow mold all around where Swiss Chard had been in the clay tray with the other seedlings. Removing the disease plant allowed us to see how the disease was attempting to spread.

Because we were able to identify the mold, we could quickly address the disease and remove it by washing the Soil Blocks with a bleach and water solution. The good thing about these Soil Blocks, more specially Soil Pellets, is that they had a medium holding the soil together. We were able to easily remove the mold from the outside. It looked as if this medium kept the soil from getting infected.

We have found that the best way to address an issue whether its weeds or a predator is to:

  • Identify the issue
    • When you see a plant in trouble, ask why and investigate
    • Document the issue and enlist or consult other gardening experts
    • Conduct research regarding the issue
  •  Resolve the issue before it gets started
    • Research and Identify Organic Remedies
  • Follow through for 2 – 4 weeks after the issue has seemed to be resolved to ensure the issue has been resolved. This may vary depending on the issue you are addressing.
  • Reevaluate
    • Was the issue resolved
    • Did the plant survive
    • Did another disease or pest come in after you resolved that issue
    • What did you learn

What have been some of the challenges that you have faced in your garden? We will face them together; tell us all about it. Did you know that plants could get disease? What did you think are the best ways to address disease when identified? What can observing disease in plants teach you about the nature of disease? What can disease in plants teach us about disease in our bodies? As always you are the best part of what we do. Stay healthy!

If these articles have been helpful to you and yours, give a donation to Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook Ezine today.

Posted on Leave a comment

Air Flow

Oregano

As we shared with all of you, we moved some diseased plants and plants that never sprouted outside near our back porch to segregate them from the other healthier plants. So far this coupled with the fresh air we have been allowing to circulate in the garage (aka mini green house) has seemed to help. Not to mention the fresh air the struggling plants get now that they are outside near the back porch. Plants need a flow of fresh air also. This is how some plants pollinate. It is also contributes to plant health and discourages disease. Since we have moved the struggling plants about 4 of the plants have made surprising come backs. 

It is so interesting to continue to watch a plant and to continue to nourish it. Just when you think the plant is done and you are ready to give up on it, it makes a surprising come back. We were recently asked about our Oregano plant by someone, you guessed it, who loves Oregano. Oregano was one of those plants that was really struggling. It sprouted and looked just fine. But, its leaves were very small and the sprouts were no taller than an eighth of an inch. Since we have been clearing the transplants out of the garage. Moving the diseased and struggling plants completely out of the garage and increased the air flow in the garage, plants like Oregano have seen positive results. 

The Three Benefits of Air Flow

  • it is how some plants pollinate
  • promotes plant health
  • discourages disease
Swiss Chard, Cilantro, Dill & Eggplant

We are really focusing on plant health and the health conditions of the environment we put our plants in. For those plants that struggle and experience disease we remove the plants from the healthy plants environment quick and isolate them. We are also trying to create an environment in which the plants can thrive such as discouraging predators that feed off struggling plants. And bringing in all sorts of plants and plant products (such as Neem Oil) that plant predators just do not like. We want to give our plants a fighting chance since in many ways we are also learning. So far, the biggest lesson is to nip any issues or trouble in the bud. When you first see a plant in trouble immediately identify and address the issue. It could take weeks if not months for an Organic Remedy to take effect. You may also have to try some other things that work better for you. In the mean time your plants may struggle or not survive.

What lessons have you learned? What are some of your favorite plants that you would like to know about? Ok, maybe we should have said food instead of plant. What is the difference between Organic Remedies and Chemical Pesticides? What difference does it make to you which one is used on your foods? Share your comments with the community by posting them below. Share the wealth of health with your friends and family by sharing this article with 3 people today. As always you are the best part of what we do. Keep growing.

If these articles have been helpful to you and yours, give a donation to Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook Ezine today.

Posted on Leave a comment

How to Compost

There are essentially three major ways to compost. We will be covering 2 out of three. The first way, the one we will not cover here, is making your own compost on the bare ground. As we shared earlier because we are largely focusing on more urban rather than rural areas we will be focusing on the Compost Tumbler or enclosed Bins as well as the store bought compost options. Urban spaces typically lack the space needed to dedicate to cultivating compost. Compost is also a delicate processes. Although it is a fairly simple process, because you are dealing with decomposition and microorganisms disease prevention and sanitary needs must be carefully attended to when taking on composting. Nonetheless, if you have questions about composting piles made on the bare ground, just ask and we will answer your questions.

Tumblers  

A tumbler is simply a barrel of sorts that can be rotated or turned to promote air flow and encourage the compositing process. Commercial tumblers are typically made from recycled plastics. The tumbler is filled with compost friendly material according to the directions of the tumbler. Compost friendly materials include such items as:

  • grass clippings
  • tree leaves
  • vegetable food scraps (coffee grounds, lettuce, potato peels, banana peels, avocado skins, etc.)
  • black and white newspaper
  • printer paper
  • most disease free yard waste
  • cardboard
  • animal manure (e.g. cows, horses, rabbits, hamsters, etc.)
  • Wood shavings or sawdust

Tumblers are more ideal for urban settings because the composting process is contained within the bin, barrel or tumbler. It is also activated with commercial starters, manures, already finished compost, garden soil or nothing at all. The organic materials are broken down, as in the compost heap method, by microbes and other living organisms fueled by oxygen. To encourage the composting process the tumbler is turned twice or three times a week, mixing the microbes with the organic material while infusing fresh supplies of oxygen. The key here is that the tumbler keeps the materials contained, as well as the heat the process generates. In a month or two fresh compost is produced. As gardener’s say, you now have black gold. This is still technically making it yourself.

A Quick Guide to Buying Compost

There are four main types of compost that are commercially sold by the bag as Bonnie Plants shares with us. Keep in mind that you may need a lot of compost to cover your area in which case it may be best to buy bulk. However, some compost will instruct you to use it sparingly as too much of some of the composts’ content may not be good for the plants that you are growing or the soil you are cultivating.

Type 1: Yard Waste Compost

Yard waste compost is made from leaves and grass clippings. It has a light texture similar to peat moss and is usually inexpensive. It is sold in bags or may be even offered for free from municipal mulch piles. Some municipalities also deliver composted leaves by the load for a fee. Check with your city or county government to see if this service is available. Local Master Gardeners may also know where you can get free yard waste compost. Yard waste compost is especially beneficial to heavy clay soil or any soil that contains very little organic matter. Yard waste compost is a great source of organic matter, but it’s lean on nutrients. Don’t forget the fertilizer when you prepare planting space with this type of compost.

Type 2: Manure Compost

Composted manure may be made from cow, horse, or poultry manures that have been combined with sawdust, yard waste, or other high-carbon materials to create a rich yet heavy-textured compost. A little goes a long way, especially in naturally fertile soils. Composted manure contains several important nutrients, so you can reduce fertilizer application rates by half when using this type of compost. Organic growers who incorporate composted manure into the soil in bulk do so in the fall to make sure that bacterial pathogens from the manure are gone by the time the crop is planted. The bagged composted manure that you’ll find in garden centers has usually been treated to kill bacteria.

Type 3: Mushroom Compost

Mushroom compost starts out as rich and hot compost made from straw and horse or cow manure or plant meals. Then, just as the compost cools down, it is inoculated with mushroom spawn and given just the right conditions to produce delicious button mushrooms. After the mushrooms fruit, the leftover soil is packaged and resold. Mushroom compost is often smelly when you first open the bag, but the odor goes away in a few days. It contains several important nutrients, so you can reduce fertilizer application rates by about one third when using this type of compost.

Type 4: VermiCompost

Vermicompost or worm castings are produced from manures, food wastes, and paper, yard waste, or other bulky material. Under carefully controlled conditions, the ingredients are processed by millions of redworms, and their waste becomes vermincompost. Before it is sold, vermincompost is usually mixed with high-quality soil to improve its texture and dilute its nutrients. The potency of vermicompost varies among products, so follow application rates given on the product’s label. Too much vermicompost can injure plant roots and flood the soil with excessive salts. Vermicompost is best used to prepare soil for root crops or as a midseason pick-me-up for peppers, tomatoes, and other vegetables that bear for a long time. Ever-bearing strawberries grown in containers also respond well to topdressing with vermicompost.

How will you choose to compost? Why is that method of composting good for you? What do you think are the benefits of composting? How can you save by composting? Share your thoughts with the community by posting them below. Share the wealth of health with your friends and family by sharing this article with 3 people today. As always you are the best part of what we do. Keep growing.

If these articles have been helpful to you and yours, give a donation to Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook Ezine today.

Posted on Leave a comment

Why Compost

Eliot Coleman, master gardener, like compost and makes his own. Composting involves microorganisms and the decomposition of waste such as leaves, vegetable scraps (like potato peels) and old tea bags. It is a slow, simple and methodical process. However, it is a careful process that must be watched, maintained and kept disease free while being made. You must also have the space to dedicate to the cultivation of compost. Some people create compost in a matter of months while people like Coleman takes at least over a year to make his.

Compost cannot only be an Organic, Natural and Environmentally friendly product highly reducing your footprint, most gardeners would tell you it is like having Black Gold. In our research we discovered that composting should be done when planting. While we still have several transplants to plant, most of our plants have been transplanted or were sown directly into the ground. So, we really missed the opportunity to use compost, which means we will probably fertilize more to attempt to enrich the soil and consequently the plants.

Nonetheless, we wanted to share the benefits of compost with you as you can begin to prepare and plan your composting for next season. Similar to the Soil Blocks recommended by Coleman, there are many ways to save money when composting yourself like many of the recommendations Coleman makes. While we have opted to go with store bought compost given the fact that we are in a more urban environment and lack the space we feel we need to compost in an effective manner, although compost tumblers are a good option. We think this is the best way for us to begin because we would like to work on disease management and understanding how plants thrive at this point in our journey.

Making your own compost whether on bare ground or via a tumbler you will reap the following benefits:

  • save money
  • save resources
  • improve your soil
  • reduce your impact on the environment
  • increases soil stability
  • improves drainage
  • retains moisture
  • nutrients are not washed away by rain
  • zero waste
  • free or repurposed materials
  • reduces landfill waste
  • re-purposes valuable resources
  • use less water because of water retention
  • reduces cost of public waste disposal
  • prolongs the life of landfills
  • 40% of residential waste is compostable
  • returns valuable nutrients to the soil which helps maintain soil quality and fertility
  • compost is a mild, slow release, natural fertilizer that won’t burn plants like chemical fertilizers
  • It also improves texture and air circulation for heavier soils (like Manitoba gumbo)
  • It helps to increase the water retention of sandy soils
  • It provides organic matter and nutrients which improve plant growth and harvest yields.

Compost is like nature’s way of recycling if it could. Applying compost to your garden will both fertilize the soil and feed the soil with a diversity of nutrients and microorganisms that will improve plant growth. Chemical fertilizers are just not a part of our Organic Journey because they only provide a quick burst of a limited number of nutrients that can wash away into our rivers and streams.

Do you use compost in your garden now? How can you introduce compost to your garden this year or next year? What ways can you get started with planning your garden and preparing your soil for planting next year? What would you like to grow next year? If you did not begin your garden this year, will you begin one next year? How can you start planning and preparing for your garden? Share your comments with the community by posting them below. Share the wealth of health with your friends and family by sharing this article with 3 people today. As always you are the best part of what we do. Keep growing.

If these articles have been helpful to you and yours, give a donation to Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook Ezine today.

Posted on Leave a comment

Zoning

When you purchase a packet of seeds, typically you will see a color coded map with a key to help you identify your growing zone. The USDA divides the United States into 11 separate planting zones. Each growing zone is 10 degrees (fahrenheit) warmer or cooler than the adjacent growing zone during an average winter. Near the color coded map there should also be a key with months in it. These months tell you the months in which it is best to begin planting or sowing seeds based on your growing zone.

While these maps do not tell you what is ideal to grow in your zone, it is important to know which plants will succeed in your growing zone and which will not. Where the map does come in handy is informing you of when to grow a particular plant. Some plants will grow into late fall just fine while other plants will not make it into the late fall months. Some plants can be started in doors before the traditional planting season and some cannot simply because they do not grow in containers well or they do not transplant well. Typically, plants cannot be started until the inside location (greenhouse) you have them in can remain above frost temperatures when temperatures dip.

Be careful to keep an eye out for cool summer nights when the last frost is already thought to have past. April is the big month to start sowing seeds in Norfolk, VA where we are (growing zone). Nonetheless, I have gotten more than my fair share of calls warning me about an ensuing frosty night. If you would like to learn more about protecting plants from frost, read our article “What do bed Sheets have to do with it?” dated May 2, 2020. To learn more about reading seed packets and the valuable information you can find on them read our article “Sow” dated May 12, 2020.

It amazes us how far we have come in such a short time in our journey. We have learned a lot together and in many ways our journey is just beginning. Our pest problems seem to be disappearing and the garden seems to be getting the start it needs. What has been the best part of the journey so far? How has your health changed? They say you need at least 30 days of consistency to see a change. What would you like to see in this journey? We have been getting a lot of comments, questions and positive feedback from everyone. And we would like you all to see what each other is saying, so feel at ease to leave your comments and questions here so the whole community can benefit. Share the wealth of health with your friends and family by sharing this article with 3 people today. As always you are the best part of what we do. Keep growing.

If these articles have been helpful to you and yours, give a donation to Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook Ezine today.

Posted on 1 Comment

Neem Oil

When our Cabbage & Brussel Sprouts leaves were being eaten up, we went in search for an Organic Remedy. Most organic gardeners and farmers will tell you the best remedy is plant health. Those plants that come under attack are typically not in good health. Although the vole might be putting them under stress. We found that the plants coming under attack were perfectly healthy plants but young and tender. Some of them were going through the transplant process and experiencing some stress and shock. All things we think the plants could bounce back from without problem. So, we have decided to give our plantings a little Organic help to promote growth and health while we get our garden off the ground.

Our search produced a recommendation to use Neem Oil. We found a product that left us with a little more questions than answers because it did not fully disclose all of its ingredients. We discovered that Neem Oil is often mixed with dish detergent and water. The emulsifier in the dish detergent helps break down the oil and give it a little structure. Naturally the oil will loosen up if heated but that is not a good application method for your plants. Once the detergent, water and neem oil mixture is made it must be used otherwise it will break down and become unusable. Well we want to know what we are putting on our food so, we found 100% cold pressed neem oil. We will add our own water. If you decided to use detergent, we recommend Castile soap, which is a natural (and can be organic) soap with no chemicals. You can find this soap at your local store or order it online. We found our Neem Oil online for about $5 per 8 ounces plus shipping. We decided to buy in bulk so we got 32 ounces for that price (per 8 ounces).

Although we think it is still to early to tell, the results thus far have been very positive. We have seen a noticeable difference in the amount of flies. They have decreased in number and have become more clandestine. Just because they get clandestine does not mean they are gone. Remember to keep up your Organic Remedy Regimen for at least 2 – 4 weeks. It is recommended to keep treating plants 2 weeks after desired results are achieved. Click here to learn more about Neem Oil from the Smiling Gardener. We did not buy our Neem Oil from this supplier, but found them to have a great deal of knowledge regarding Neem Oil as it relates to gardening and farming.

This Organic Remedy should allow our plants time to get over any shock or stress. We also dug new ground and are always learning what works best. So, there are a lot of factors to consider. We wanted a product whose ingredients we knew. Also, we are always looking for a good deal. We don’t mind mixing up our own Neem Oil solution in order to get these things. We believe you should know what is on and in your food. So, we decided to go with a small business owner supplier who provided unfiltered and cold pressed Neem Oil.

We have high hopes for our garden once these seedlings have an opportunity to flourish. They are on average very healthy and strong. The introduction of Soil Blocks and other methods that discourage disease have significantly improved our sowing success, it is on track to be 100% of seeds sown sprout into healthy plants. The transplanting process has been improved. And we are in the process of helping them catch root quicker. Discouraging voles and other mole like animals should also keep the plants from being uprooted once successfully transplanted. What we believe is a vole could have also been preventing our plantings from developing healthy root systems as well as taking root sooner and completing the transplant process. We will be observing if these pest remedies shorten the transplant process.

We believe the Neem Oil will help keep pests at bay and give these plants a chance to recover from any stress or shock. When reading packages they often make EPA, USDA and other certifications. Do you know what these standards are and are these standards acceptable to you? Do you think manufacturers should release all ingredients despite their desire to protect trade secrets? How can you help influence EPA & USDA standards that are more transparent and acceptable to your own personal standards? Share your comments with the community by posting them below. Share the wealth of health with your friends and family by sharing this article with 3 people today. As always you are the best part of what we do. Keep sharing!

If these articles have been helpful to you and yours, give a donation to Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook Ezine today.

Posted on Leave a comment

Barbra’s Garden

Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook

Ok, we caught a few of you holding back on us. We thought Barbra had one little pepper plant at home. Come to find out she has her own mini garden inside her kitchen. First and foremost we want to wish Barbra a Happy Birthday and thank her for all her hospitality. She is an amazing cook who loves fresh foods. When eating at Barbra’s there is always more than enough. We got a couple of photos of Barbra’s kitchen garden and will be looking forward to a little more information on what she is growing up in the kitchen. Her daughter, a new mom, also fried up a couple of crabs like only a Virginian can. She made the best fried crabs I every had. Maybe we will get an official recipe and share it with you.

It seems once you get one plant the others follow behind shortly. We know of a few others who are beginning their own gardens and involving their children in the process. We will have updates for you soon! Are yoooou holding anything back. What is growing in your kitchen or yard? As you begin your gardening journey we invite you to take the journey with us. Share your comments with the community by posting them below. Share the wealth of health with your friends and family by sharing this article with 3 people today. As always you are the best part of what we do. Keep sharing!

If these articles have been helpful to you and yours, give a donation to Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook Ezine today.

Posted on 1 Comment

Crowded

MiMi’s Flower started it all. MiMi & Mom brought us a Cynoglossum Amabile (Chiense Forget-Me-Not) Flower Growing Kit. We spotted the same brand in the gardening section of our local dollar store. When we saw the Growing Kit we were pretty excited. So we got the Echinacea Purpurea Flower Growing Kit also. Echinacea Purpurea is known for its ability to boost and build up the immune system, which is a perfect way to stay healthy in this Corona climate. You guessed it. It is an edible flower and can also be put on salads. When we bought Echinacea Purpurea home we decided to do an experiment on crowding. Just a note, the Echinacea Purpurea seeds from this Growing Kit are 100% Natural and come from Czech Republic. MiMi’s Flower (Cynoglossum Amabile) is also a 100% Natural Seed coming from the Netherlands.

We sowed all of MiMi’s Flowers in the one pot provided in the Growing Kit. While the Echinacea Purpurea we sowed in 2 pots (because we had already moisten our growing medium and had enough for 2 pots); we also sowed it in a Soil Block and directly in the ground. We sowed 3 – 4 seeds in each location and saved the remaining seeds. As all flowers grow we can observer how these plants handle crowding (since the packet did not provide spacing instructions) and how they react to the different sowing environments (pot, Soil Block and directly into the ground).

You will also find videos in this article showing how the growing medium in the kit absorbs water as well as how the Soil Blocks absorb water from the bottom up going from a dry medium disc into moistened growing medium. What did you learn from the videos? Would you like to see more videos? We have a You Tube channel now. Be sure to check it out and see what is new. Share your comments with the community by posting them below. Share the wealth of health with your friends and family by sharing this article with 3 people today. As always you are the best part of what we do. Keep sharing!

If these articles have been helpful to you and yours, give a donation to Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook Ezine today.

Soil Blocks
Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook
Posted on Leave a comment

Korean Connection

Now that we have 3 more rows, we decided to gather a couple more seeds to sow to fill in our garden as we wrap up the planting phase and move into cultivation. We sowed a few directly into the ground and will be transplanting another 10 – 14 plants over the next few weeks. After we get all our transplants out, everything that we will be sowing for the season will be in the garden. We will then focus our efforts outside and tuck our remaining seeds away in a cool dry place until next season. As we were looking for a few more seeds to sow and perhaps a good deal since the sowing season is winding down, we discovered a slim selection and no deals. Nurseries and garden centers have begun to put out plants and flowers. We did however find some okra, which should be an interesting and delicious addition to the garden.

We were so intrigued by the Korean “lettuce” that we decided to get a little more adventurous. The pickings were also slimmer than before. Nonetheless, we picked up a couple more lettuce like seeds as well as some radishes and green onions Korean style. We sowed these seeds directly into the garden. It has been a beautiful day and the garden is always a peaceful as well as fruitful place to be. As much work as there seems to be, there seems also to be an abundance of peace and connection with nature while working in the garden. It never seems nearly as long as it is. The time flies. The bugs and worms are busy beneath the surface doing their work as well. So are the birds, bees and butterflies. We are not so much worried about them as we are about the ants that never seem to go away.

These Korean Seedlings should be interesting to observer as well as eat. We hope you are feeling just as adventurous as us. If so, grocery stores are another common place to source international seeds. So, try your local international food market to locate some international seeds. Every seed we selected we got a little information on since the packet was all in Korean. Even if it was a lose translation. We discovered a few things about our seeds:

  • What is it like? In other words, is it like Spinach. Often we got it is like such and such but, with for instance, a different texture.
  • How do you cook it? Can you eat it raw? Must it be cooked? What are common dishes that it is cooked in. For instance, soup or salad.
  • What is its name? In English or in the foreign name so you can research it. Or ask us.

From what we discovered, we have a few lettuce like, radish and green onion Korean varieties. But they should be nothing like what we have had before. The whole process will be an interesting learning experience and adventure. What are your favorite international foods? Where are your local international food markets? Tell us about any gardening deals you see! Share the wealth of information with your friends and family by sharing this article with 3 people today. As always you are the best part of what we do. Keep sharing!

If these articles have been helpful to you and yours, give a donation to Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook Ezine today.