Posted on Leave a comment

Scientists turn CO2 into jet fuel

It could lead to net zero emissions for air travel.

Jon Fingas@jonfingas
December 27, 2020
Source: Engadget

A Rolls-Royce engine is seen on a Boeing 787-9 Dreamliner owned by ANA Holdings Inc. in Everett, Washington, U.S. August 17, 2016. REUTERS/Alwyn Scott/File Photo
REUTERS/Alwyn Scott/File Photo
Source: Engadget
Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook

Researchers may have found a way to reduce the environmental impact of air travel in situations when electric aircraft and alternative fuels aren’t practical. Wired reports that Oxford University scientists have successfully turned CO2 into jet fuel, raising the possibility of conventionally-powered aircraft with net zero emissions.

The technique effectively reverses the process of burning fuel by relying on the organic combustion method. The team heated a mix of citric acid, hydrogen and an iron-manganese-potassium catalyst to turn CO2 into a liquid fuel capable of powering jet aircraft.

The approach is inexpensive, uncomplicated and uses commonplace materials. It’s cheaper than processes used to turn hydrogen and water into fuel.

There are numerous challenges to bringing this to aircraft. The lab method only produced a few grams of fuel — you’d clearly need much more to support even a single flight, let alone an entire fleet. You’d need much more widespread use of carbon capture. And if you want effectively zero emissions, the capture and conversion systems would have to run on clean energy.

The researches are talking with industrial partners, though, and don’t see any major scientific hurdles. It might also be one of the most viable options for fleets. Many of them would have to replace their aircraft to go electric or switch fuel types. This conversion process would let airlines keep their existing aircraft and go carbon neutral until they’re truly ready for eco-friendly propulsion.

From cars to jets, are we ready for eco-friendly travel? Why? Why not?

Share your comments with the community by posting them below. Share the wealth of health with your friends and family by sharing this article with 3 people today. As always you are the best part of what we do. Keep sharing!

If these articles have been helpful to you and yours, give a donation to Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook Ezine today.

Posted on Leave a comment

Snow Harvesting

Snow Water Harvesting On Our Urban Site

Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook

Does it snow where you live? Have you considered harvesting snow? Why? Why not?

Share your comments with the community by posting them below. Share the wealth of health with your friends and family by sharing this article with 3 people today. As always you are the best part of what we do. Keep sharing!

If these articles have been helpful to you and yours, give a donation to Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook Ezine today.

Posted on Leave a comment

Seeing the COVID-19 Pandemic from Space

By Abigail Seadler,
NASA’s Earth Science Division

Source: NASA
Photos Source: NASA

Economic and social shutdowns in response to the COVID-19 pandemic have led to noticeable changes in Earth’s environment, at least for the short term. NASA researchers are using satellite and ground-based observations to track these impacts on our airlandwater, and climate. These datasets have been collected in a free and openly available online dashboard.

Average NO2 levels over San Francisco for the past 5 years
Source: NASA
Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook
NO2 levels over San Francisco in March 2020
Source: NASA
Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook

Nitrogen Dioxide Levels Over San Francisco, California

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), an air pollutant, decreased significantly over urban areas during the pandemic. The left image above shows average NO2 levels over San Francisco for the past 5 years, and the right image shows NO2 levels over San Francisco in March 2020. These data are from NASA’s Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Credit: NASA COVID-19 Dashboard

The NASA COVID-19 Dashboard features data collected by Earth-observing satellites, instruments aboard the International Space Station, and sensitive ground-based networks. The global maps are searchable by several categories of observable change, including economic indicators, such as shipping and construction activity, and environmental factors, such as water quality and climate variations. Investigate the data layers yourself or take a guided tour of how NASA Earth scientists are studying – and learning about – the pandemic’s effects on the Earth system.

NASA scientists use many different tools, datasets, and methods to investigate COVID-related changes in the Earth system. Comparing complementary datasets on the dashboard helps reveal a deeper story of how the environment is changing due to COVID-related shutdowns.

satellite data of air pollution over California airport

Thermal data from the joint NASA-U.S. Geological Survey Landsat satellite show decreases in the urban heat island effect, a phenomenon where urban areas are significantly warmer than adjacent rural areas, during the pandemic. The left image shows temperatures over San Francisco in April 2018, while the right image shows temperatures over San Francisco in April 2020. Scientists found that large parking lots, highway corridors, and commercial rooftops were on average 10-15 degrees Fahrenheit (5-8 degrees Celsius) cooler from March to May 2020, compared to previous years. Credit: NASA COVID-19 Dashboard.
Source: NASA
Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook

For example, scientists at NASA’s Ames Research Center discovered that emptier parking lots near closed, non-essential businesses, in combination with cleaner air from less surface transportation, meant that heat from the sun radiating off dark asphalt and cement surfaces did not stay trapped near the ground as long. Instead, heat dissipated quickly, cooling the urban environment. Comparing the data to pre-pandemic years, scientists found that large parking lots, highway corridors, and commercial rooftops were, on average, 10-15 degrees Fahrenheit (about 5-8 degrees Celsius) cooler from March to May 2020.

The NASA COVID-19 Dashboard will be updated with more data and discoveries throughout the pandemic and beyond.

What does this information from NASA tell us about the impact of human activity on global warming? How can you help improve the environment? Do you ride a bike or recycle? Are you a Community Champion…read more about the environment below.

Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook

Share your comments with the community by posting them below. Share the wealth of health with your friends and family by sharing this article with 3 people today. As always you are the best part of what we do. Keep sharing!

If these articles have been helpful to you and yours, give a donation to Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook Ezine today.

Posted on Leave a comment

Environmental Impacts of Solar Power

PHOTO: PIOTR ZAJDA/SHUTTERSTOCK
Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook

Source: Union of Concerned Scientist

The sun provides a tremendous resource for generating clean and sustainable electricity without toxic pollution or global warming emissions.

The potential environmental impacts associated with solar power—land use and habitat loss, water use, and the use of hazardous materials in manufacturing—can vary greatly depending on the technology, which includes two broad categories: photovoltaic (PV) solar cells or concentrating solar thermal plants (CSP).

The scale of the system—ranging from small, distributed rooftop PV arrays to large utility-scale PV and CSP projects—also plays a significant role in the level of environmental impact.

Land use

Depending on their location, larger utility-scale solar facilities can raise concerns about land degradation and habitat loss. Total land area requirements varies depending on the technology, the topography of the site, and the intensity of the solar resource. Estimates for utility-scale PV systems range from 3.5 to 10 acres per megawatt, while estimates for CSP facilities are between 4 and 16.5 acres per megawatt.

Unlike wind facilities, there is less opportunity for solar projects to share land with agricultural uses. However, land impacts from utility-scale solar systems can be minimized by siting them at lower-quality locations such as brownfields, abandoned mining land, or existing transportation and transmission corridors [12]. Smaller scale solar PV arrays, which can be built on homes or commercial buildings, also have minimal land use impact.

Water use

Solar PV cells do not use water for generating electricity. However, as in all manufacturing processes, some water is used to manufacture solar PV components.

Concentrating solar thermal plants (CSP), like all thermal electric plants, require water for cooling. Water use depends on the plant design, plant location, and the type of cooling system.

CSP plants that use wet-recirculating technology with cooling towers withdraw between 600 and 650 gallons of water per megawatt-hour of electricity produced. CSP plants with once-through cooling technology have higher levels of water withdrawal, but lower total water consumption (because water is not lost as steam). Dry-cooling technology can reduce water use at CSP plants by approximately 90 percent [3]. However, the tradeoffs to these water savings are higher costs and lower efficiencies. In addition, dry-cooling technology is significantly less effective at temperatures above 100 degrees Fahrenheit.

Many of the regions in the United States that have the highest potential for solar energy also tend to be those with the driest climates, so careful consideration of these water tradeoffs is essential. (For more information, see How it Works: Water for Power Plant Cooling.)

Hazardous materials

The PV cell manufacturing process includes a number of hazardous materials, most of which are used to clean and purify the semiconductor surface. These chemicals, similar to those used in the general semiconductor industry, include hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, hydrogen fluoride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and acetone. The amount and type of chemicals used depends on the type of cell, the amount of cleaning that is needed, and the size of silicon wafer [4].  Workers also face risks associated with inhaling silicon dust. Thus, PV manufactures must follow U.S. laws to ensure that workers are not harmed by exposure to these chemicals and that manufacturing waste products are disposed of properly.

Thin-film PV cells contain a number of more toxic materials than those used in traditional silicon photovoltaic cells, including gallium arsenide, copper-indium-gallium-diselenide, and cadmium-telluride[5]. If not handled and disposed of properly, these materials could pose serious environmental or public health threats. However, manufacturers have a strong financial incentive to ensure that these highly valuable and often rare materials are recycled rather than thrown away.

Life-cycle global warming emissions

While there are no global warming emissions associated with generating electricity from solar energy, there are emissions associated with other stages of the solar life-cycle, including manufacturing, materials transportation, installation, maintenance, and decommissioning and dismantlement. Most estimates of life-cycle emissions for photovoltaic systems are between 0.07 and 0.18 pounds of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour.

Most estimates for concentrating solar power range from 0.08 to 0.2 pounds of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour. In both cases, this is far less than the lifecycle emission rates for natural gas (0.6-2 lbs of CO2E/kWh) and coal (1.4-3.6 lbs of CO2E/kWh) [6]. 

References:

[1] Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Renewable Energy at Mining Sites

[2, 3, 4] National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). 2012. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Hand, M.M.; Baldwin, S.; DeMeo, E.; Reilly, J.M.; Mai, T.; Arent, D.; Porro, G.; Meshek, M.; Sandor, D. eds. 4 vols. NREL/TP-6A20-52409. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

[5] National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Best Research-Cell Efficiencies.

[6] IPCC, 2011: IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation. Prepared by Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [O. Edenhofer, R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, K. Seyboth, P. Matschoss, S. Kadner, T. Zwickel, P. Eickemeier, G. Hansen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow (eds)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1075 pp. (Chapter 7 & 9).

What are the commercial implications of the solar panel industry? Why? Why not?

Share your comments with the community by posting them below. Share the wealth of health with your friends and family by sharing this article with 3 people today. As always you are the best part of what we do. Keep sharing!

If these articles have been helpful to you and yours, give a donation to Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook Ezine today.

Posted on Leave a comment

Is Aluminum better than Plastic?

Is aluminum better than plastic? It’s complicated.

Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook
Source: The Verege
Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook

Which do you think is better: plastic or aluminum for recycling? Why? How can you use what you learned to reduce global warming?

Share your comments with the community by posting them below. Share the wealth of health with your friends and family by sharing this article with 3 people today. As always you are the best part of what we do. Keep sharing!

If these articles have been helpful to you and yours, give a donation to Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook Ezine today.

Posted on Leave a comment

With holidays, know what you can, cannot recycle

122018-recycle-001
Source: Quad City Times
These holiday items do NOT belong in your recycling cart: wrapping paper (even if it has the recycling symbol, which means it was made from recycled materials), ribbons, bows, and artificial Christmas trees. Christmas lights can be recycled, but only at the Electronics Recovery Center, 5650 Carey Ave., Davenport. QUAD-CITY TIMES
Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook

Household waste in the United States increases by more than 25% between Thanksgiving and New Year’s Day.

Scott County residents may recycle many holiday items through curbside and drop-off recycling programs, including:

• Boxes, such as those from electronics, toys, shoes and shirts;

• Wrapping paper tubes;

• Gift/shopping bags made of paper;

• Tissue paper;

• Greeting cards and envelopes (even photo cards);

• Newspapers, advertisements, magazines and catalogs;

• Plastic bottles and jugs;

• Glass bottles and jars;

• Aluminum and steel cans.

• Aluminum pie plates, clean foil and cookie/popcorn tins also go into the recycling cart or drop off recycling programs.

Holiday lights: Strands of holiday lights also may be recycled, but don’t place them in curbside recycling carts.

Holiday lights — along with computers, monitors, televisions, printers, digital cameras and video game systems — are considered electronic waste, or e-waste.

These items may be dropped off 7:30 a.m. to 4 p.m. weekdays and 8 a.m. to noon the first Saturday of the month at the Electronics Recovery Center, 5650 Carey Ave., Davenport. There is no charge to residents of Scott and Rock Island counties.

The cities of Bettendorf and Davenport collect large e-waste items at the curb from residents on their bulky waste/recycling days and deliver them to the Electronics Recovery Center. Data containing electronics can be dropped off at the secure Electronics Recovery Center during business hours.

What CAN’T be recycled: Not all holiday items may be recycled. This includes plastic bags and films, Styrofoam, wrapping paper, bows, ribbons, and artificial Christmas trees. These are considered contaminants to the recycling process and should not be placed in curbside or drop-off recycling containers.

Follow the guidelines: Residents are reminded that all recyclables must be contained within their cart, with the lid closed, for collection. Cardboard placed outside the cart cannot be collected. Cardboard pieces that do not fit inside the cart may either be broken down to fit, or may be recycled at any of the drop-off locations around the county. A list of locations may be found online at www.wastecom.com.

For more information about holiday recycling, call 563-386-9575 or visit www.wastecom.com.

Now that Christmas is over, what will you do with all that wrapping and packing? What are your New Year’s resolutions? Is recycling one of them?

Share your comments with the community by posting them below. Share the wealth of health with your friends and family by sharing this article with 3 people today. As always you are the best part of what we do. Keep sharing!

If these articles have been helpful to you and yours, give a donation to Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook Ezine today.

Posted on Leave a comment

US to hold world climate summit early next year and seek to rejoin Paris accord

Source: The Guardian
Action points for first 100 days of Joe Biden presidency seen as boost to international action currently falling behind

Joe Biden said he would immediately start working with counterparts on climate change mitigation.
Joe Biden said he would immediately start working with counterparts on climate change mitigation. Photograph: Susan Walsh/AP
Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook

The US will hold a climate summit of the world’s major economies early next year, within 100 days of Joe Biden taking office, and seek to rejoin the Paris agreement on the first day of his presidency, in a boost to international climate action.

Leaders from 75 countries met without the US in a virtual Climate Ambition Summit co-hosted by the UN, the UK and France at the weekend, marking the fifth anniversary of the Paris accord. The absence of the US underlined the need for more countries, including other major economies such as Brazil, Russia and Indonesia, to make fresh commitments on tackling the climate crisis.

Biden said in a statement: “I’ll immediately start working with my counterparts around the world to do all that we possibly can, including by convening the leaders of major economies for a climate summit within my first 100 days in office … We’ll elevate the incredible work cities, states and businesses have been doing to help reduce emissions and build a cleaner future. We’ll listen to and engage closely with the activists, including young people, who have continued to sound the alarm and demand change from those in power.”

He reiterated his pledge to put the US on a path to net zero carbon emissions by 2050, and said the move would be good for the US economy and workers. “We’ll do all of this knowing that we have before us an enormous economic opportunity to create jobs and prosperity at home and export clean American-made products around the world.”

How can rejoining the Paris Accord improve the air you and your loved ones breath? What are the benefits of rejoining the Paris Accord? Why? Why not?

Share your comments with the community by posting them below. Share the wealth of health with your friends and family by sharing this article with 3 people today. As always you are the best part of what we do. Keep sharing!

If these articles have been helpful to you and yours, give a donation to Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook Ezine today.

Posted on Leave a comment

As climate change increases precipitation, Northam aims to replace dam restoration funding

By Sarah Vogelsong -September 2, 2020
Source: Virginia Mercury

Flood waters spill over a dam near Swift Creek in Colonial Heights. (NBC12 via Colonial Heights Fire Department)
Source: Virginia Mercury
Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook

First came rising waters and flooded roads. Then came evacuations. 

An Aug. 15 storm that stalled over Central Virginia and dropped almost 10 inches of rain on parts of Chesterfield County highlighted a threat that the state has long been aware of but, with climate change, is becoming ever more pressing: dam failures. 

In Chesterfield, officials’ fears that rising waters would breach the Falling Creek Reservoir Dam led to the evacuation of about 150 homes in the area. Ultimately the dam would hold and residents would return to their houses, but the unusual storm would heighten concerns about the integrity of the commonwealth’s more than 3,000 dams. 

“These incredibly intense and more frequent precipitation events can be more problematic,” said Russ Baxter, deputy director of dam safety and floodplain management with the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation. “In heavy rains, tropical storm-type rains, dams are going to fail.”

Gov. Ralph Northam would also point to the Chesterfield flooding as justification for restoring $15 million for rehabilitation of state-owned dams in the budget he presented to the General Assembly when it reconvened for a special session this August. This spending, which legislators had removed from the budget this spring in response to anticipated financial shortfalls due to the COVID-19 pandemic, “can’t wait,” the governor said.

Other dam-related spending cut by the General Assembly, including funds for the hiring of a dam safety lead engineer and other positions, would not be restored under Northam’s proposal.

If approved by the legislature, the $15 million in funding would be deposited in the Dam Safety, Flood Prevention, and Protection Assistance Fund “to support rehabilitation of aging dams that pose a threat to public safety and the environment,” said Northam spokesperson Alena Yarmosky.

Virginia’s dams, like those around the country, are showing their years and in many cases are in need of major repairs. About two-thirds of them are regulated by DCR, with the remainder overseen by federal and state institutions like the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the State Corporation Commission. Of those inventoried by DCR, only about 15 percent are in compliance with the state’s Dam Safety Act requirements, according to Yarmosky. 

Complicating matters is the high level of private ownership of these structures. According to 2018 numbers from DCR, more than 1,000 dams regulated by the department are privately owned, a phenomenon that one scholar at Washington and Lee’s School of Law traces back to a colonial-era legal instrument known as the “King’s grant.”

“A number have been built as amenities for housing developments. … Some obviously serve public purposes such as impounding water for water supply. Some are built for flood control,” said Baxter. “They are infrastructure in a sense, but people can build dams as long as they have the proper permits and can build properly.”

Today, some 323 Virginia dams are classified “high hazard,” a label that means that in the event of a failure, lives would probably be lost and economic damage would be serious — although Baxter cautioned the actual count could be higher because the state lacks complete information on all the “impounding structures” within its borders. A 2018 study ordered by the General Assembly that identified 43 of the riskiest dams owned by the state’s soil and water conservation district found the top four were all in the Shenandoah Valley and would cost more than $22 million to rehabilitate. 

Climate change has exacerbated the pressure. In 2018, Northam issued Executive Order 24 focusing on increasing Virginia’s resiliency in the face of sea level rise and a changing climate. As part of that, DCR was tasked with reviewing the dam safety and flood protection provisions of state code and making recommendations for how to strengthen them in the face of what DCR Director Clyde Cristman later called “the undeniable changes in climate that have already begun to affect our ability to protect our land, infrastructure, businesses and citizens.” 

For dams, changing precipitation patterns are the greatest threat. The U.S.’s 2018 National Climate Assessment found that “in the Southeast, the combined effects of extreme rainfall events and rising sea level are increasing flood frequencies, making coastal and low-lying regions highly vulnerable.” Among the effects of those shifts are “historically high” numbers of days with three or more inches of precipitation. The problem is exacerbated by “aging and deteriorating dams and levees,” the assessment pointed out, which “represent an increasing hazard when exposed to extreme or, in some cases, even moderate rainfall.”

DCR is aware of the additional challenges posed by climate change, Baxter said. Beginning in 2014, the department began working with Colorado firm Applied Weather Associates to obtain state-specific precipitation estimates used in dam failure analyses that project what downstream consequences are likely if a given dam fails. In 2018, DCR used these estimates (formally called probable maximum precipitation estimates) to adopt new models for how rainfall tends to be distributed over time — another tool key to evaluating the safety of dams. 

Still, the 2019 study commissioned by Executive Order 24 found, “with the potential for more frequent and heavier precipitation events, the Dam Safety Program must be more robust to protect the lives and property of Virginians.”

Baxter said DCR had hoped to add more personnel to its dam safety and flood management team, which numbers a little more than a dozen people, but “then obviously COVID ran into the budget like a train.”

Neither Democrats nor Republicans in the legislature have indicated any opposition to Northam’s restoration of the $15 million in dam funding.

How can you help improve the environment? Where are you located? Do you harvest rain water?

Share your comments with the community by posting them below. Share the wealth of health with your friends and family by sharing this article with 3 people today. As always you are the best part of what we do. Keep sharing!

If these articles have been helpful to you and yours, give a donation to Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook Ezine today.

Posted on Leave a comment

Ways to go Green: Recycling

Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook Recycling

Source: Freeway Insurance

In a lifetime, the average American will throw away 600 times the amount of his or her adult weight in garbage. Recycling is an important part of protecting the environment and helps conserve resources and energy, preserves valuable landfill space and supports a healthy environment.

Below are 10 ways to recycle, some of which also help with reducing and reusing.

1.    Use reusable bags instead of plastic. A weekly trip to the grocery store requires an average of 10 plastic bags to carry the entire load of groceries home. That is approximately 520 plastic bags per year for a single household. Rather than recycling the plastic bags, use reusable cloth bags that you can wash and reuse throughout the year.
2.    Reuse scrap paper for crafts. Even the smallest bits of pretty fabric and paper can make a big impact. Turn them into strips of decorative tape and you’ll have beautiful trims ready to use.
3.    Repurpose glass jars and containers. You’re paying extra for these food-filled glass containers, why not reuse them for other household items that need a new container? You can look up many green living ideas on Pinterest that will show you great ways to recycle plain glass jars into pretty home-products, ranging from food containers to decorative light-hangers.
4.    Use cloth napkins and towels. Using cloth napkins and towels in the kitchen and bathrooms will help to reduce paper consumption and give you a reusable product, possibly saving you a couple hundred dollars a year.
5.    Recycle electronics. Even if you’ve tried everything you can to revive your electronic device, laptop or computer, don’t just dump it in the garbage. You can donate it to charities that can fix it up or send it back to the manufacturer that will end up recycling the body and parts for other products. Some ink cartridge manufacturers will give you a prepaid label to mail back used-cartridges to recycle. Look into the manufacturers of your devices and find out about their recycling programs.

Extreme recycling

These 5 extreme recycling tips take more work, but if you’re serious about Green Living, then continue on to these ways to recycle:

1.    Recycle water. This one is a big investment, as you’d have to reconfigure your water pipes so that bathwater and sink water can be used for either flushing the toilet or for watering your yards. You’ll be recycling the water to serve more than just a single purpose and as a result, also saving more on your water bills.
2.    Make your own compost. You’ll be leaving your organic waste in a compost bin to decompose so that you can recycle the compost for plants. Be sure that you have the right container and put only decomposable items in.
3.    Switch to using cloth diapers. Using cloth diapers for your child may seem outdated, but women have done this for centuries. Disposable diapers aren’t usually put into recycling categories, so you’re better off using cloth diapers if you truly want to go green.
4.    Collect rainwater to use for watering plants. If you’re in a state other than California, which is in a drought, you should be taking advantage of the rainy season and recycling the rainwater. Save more money on your water bill by using the natural water for watering your indoor or outdoor plants.
5.    Buy secondhand furniture. It’s one of the greatest ways to recycle furniture that is still usable and also reduces trash in the landfill.

True green living requires a lifestyle change, but there are little things you can do that will help our landfills from becoming unusable. Just follow these ways to recycle, and you’ll be on your way to having less garbage and wasted resources.

What ways can you recycle? Are you a community climate change champion? What ways do you recycle now?

Share your comments with the community by posting them below. Share the wealth of health with your friends and family by sharing this article with 3 people today. As always you are the best part of what we do. Keep sharing!

If these articles have been helpful to you and yours, give a donation to Shidonna Raven Garden and Cook Ezine today.